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Raspberry plants

Raspberry plantsRasbberry classes - (a) The European raspberry (Rubus ideus). Varieties of this class were for many years the only kinds grown in the United States. They proved, however, to be poorly adapted to the conditions, although in a few localities - as, for instance, near the Hudson River, they were a success. The Herstine, Hudson River, Red Antwerp, and Superlative are representatives of this class.

(b) The American raspberries are the foundation of commercial raspberry growing in the United States. They embrace the red raspberry (Rubus strigosa) and the black-cap varieties (Rubus occidentalis). The Cuthbert, King, and Turner are of the red, and the Gregg, Older, and Ohio of the black-cap varieties.

(c) Hybrids of the red and black caps are common. They were once regarded as a separate species and were name Rubus neglectus. Examples are the Columbian, Schaeffer, and Philadelphia. All raspberries in cultivation are divided into two classes:

(1) Those that increase by tip layers, and
(2) those that propagate by suckers.

This is not a strictly botanical classification, but has been adopted for convenience.

Raspberry propagation - The methods of propagation vary greatly with the different species. All may be grown from seed but do not come "true." In practice the following methods are commonly used:

(a) The red raspberry may be propagating from suckers.
(b) Root cuttings are also used for propagating the red raspberry and some of its hybrids.
(c) Tip layers are used for the black-cap varieties and its hybrids.
(d) All kinds may be propagated by divisions of the stocks.

Rasberry soil and location - A cool location and a retentive soil are best for the raspberry. It is very liable to injury from hot sunny weather and drying winds, hence northern are better than southern slopes, and eastern better than western. The red varieties are better than the black for the South, while in dry northern sections the black caps succeed better than the red. Protection from drying winds is desirable, and it is frequently necessary to use wind-breaks for this purpose.

Raspberry planting and training - (a) Varieties selected for planting should be such as are adapted to the location and to the special pur­pose for which they are grown. Much depends upon the judgment of the grower in selecting a variety suited to his conditions and in buying strong, healthy sets for planting.
(b) Plant about 4 by 7 feet apart. This, however, depends upon the kind of raspberrieo grown;
(c) Red raspberries may be planted either in the autumn or spring. If black-cap varieties are set in the autumn, the work must be done with great care and the plants be protected with mulch in the winter. As a rule they should only be planted in the spring.
(d) Suckering raspberries s hould be planted a little deeper than they grew. Cap sorts should be planted at the same depth that they grew.
(e) In growing extensively trellises are seldom used, but in small gardens they are often advantageous. (f) The canes grow one year, and fruit the next. The old canes should be cut out and burned as soon as they are done fruiting. A hooked knife is generally used for this purpose.
(g) when growth starts in the spring, all but four or five young canes of each raspberry plant should be cut out. If more are left they often become top crowded. The extent to which the thinning of the canes should be carried depends largely upon the kinds grown.
(h) Spring pruning consists in shortening the lateral branches from one-third to one-half of their growth. Much more severe pruning is needed in the case of black caps than with red raspberries.
(i) Sum­mer pruning consists in pinchinge o canes the new growth when the canes are about 2 feet high. When the canes are covered in winter, this pinching should be done but once; where they are not covered the pinching off should be repeated to make the plants stocky. For summer pruning, sheep shears or a sharp knife is best.

Raspberry cultivation - (a) Crops may be used the first year between the plants to advantage. (b) The cultivation should be shallow and continuous throughout the season.
(c)Mulching is sometimes practiced, but it is seldom that good mulching material is sufficiently abundant to make its use practicable upon a large scale. A satisfactory method is to cultivate until the fruit commences to ripen and then mulch for 2 feet around the bushes, leaving the remaining 3 feet to continue to be cultivated. After picking remove all old canes and cultivate.
(d) The tools used in cultivating raspberries are much the same as those in general use in gardens, and consist of the garden cultivator, and the hoe.

Raspberry winter protection - (a) In severe locations the canes must be laid on the pinched and be protected in winter. In such places they should be punched back but once for, if pinched frequently, the canes become too strong to lay down. Some of the best raspberry growers do not pinch back at all if they intend to lav the canes on the ground in winter.
(b) A machine has been originated in Minnesota that covers raspberries and blackberries successfully, requiring four horses to operate it. It is there used on a large scale.
(c) The proper time to covered canes in the spring will depend upon circumstances. They need not be uncovered until late, and may thus be held back to escape injury from late frosts.
(d) In laying raspberries it is important that the work be done before the severe frosts of autumn. The bending should be in the roots and as little as possible in the stems.
(e) Trellises for raspberries are often used to advantage in gardens and in locations much exposed to the wind. For use on a large scale the best form is two wires stretched one on each side of the row and fastened to posts at each end and then tied together at intervals with twine. The wires should be about 2 feet from the ground. Such a trellis allows the plants to sway in the wind, and at the same time prevents them from breaking and keeps them out of the way of the cultivator.

Raspberry fruit - The fruit is red or yellow in color in the red rasp­berry class, and black, yellow, and purple in the cap class. The varieties vary in fruitfulness, size, and color of fruit.
The purple varieties do not sell well in most markets, and are therefore grown chiefly for home use.